Fat Doesn’t Make You Fat

For my regular readers, this article will be a bit off-topic – it’s written for a couple of friends.

Eating fat does not make you fat. Well, not directly. All the food you put into your face must eventually be turned into glucose – sugar, basically. That’s the only fuel your body can burn.

When you eat simple carbohydrates – that is, sugars – your body absorbs the sugar directly in to the bloodstream from your digestive tract. Sugar doesn’t require any digestion to become sugar, although certain types of sugar go through some extra processing before they turn into the kind of sugar your body runs on. This is why sugar is such a quick hit of energy – it gets into the blood fast. A gram of simple carbs turns into 4 calories of energy. (Technically, 4 kilocalories, but in the US we refer to ‘em as calories).

Complex carbohydrates, like starches, take longer to break down. Your body uses enzymes in the digestive tract, mainly the mouth (saliva), stomach and small intestine, to break them down into sugars, which are absorbed into the blood through he small intestine. Many complex carbs are accompanied by dietary fibre, which slows down the enzymes’ reaction, thereby slowing the release of sugar into your blood. A gram of carbs gets you 4 calories of energy.

Protein is harder. Most of the digestive work happens in the stomach and small intestine, primarily by hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, two substances in the stomach. Protein can take a long time to break down, compared to complex carbs, and proteins don’t break down into sugar. Instead, they break down into amino acids. It’s those amino acids that get absorbed into your blood, and your body can use them to repair and strengthen existing proteins – muscles – in your body. This is important, because your body loses a minimum of 250 grams of protein per day, and needs to rebuild that 250 grams. Some of the broken-down protein is actually recycled, though, so it’s not like you need to eat 250 grams a day! Protein is kind of a pain to digest. In fact, although every gram of protein yields 4 calories, it takes about 1 calorie to actually digest the stuff. In terms of energy, protein just isn’t efficient source of energy.

Then there’s fat, which is broken down into sugars, and which yields an amazing 9 calories per gram. But remember: It’s broken down into sugar. Fat doesn’t automatically go to your gut. It doesn’t matter (from a weight perspective) what kind of calories you eat – they all turn into the same energy at the end. And all energy can become fat, if you have too much of it.

Finally, there’s alcohol. This is basically a super-carbohydrate, turning into 7 calories per gram. And, best of all, when you’re burning energy from alcohol, you won’t burn energy from any other source. That means your liver is a lot more likely to turn any other free calories into fat for later use.

So where does all this energy go? Your bloodstream can store about 600 free calories, and your muscles store about 2000. The trick with muscular calories is that they aren’t shared; they can only be used to power the muscle they’re stored in. That’s why a full-body workout can burn so many calories – you’re depleting hundreds of tiny calorie storage units, which then have to be refilled. Building more muscle increases calorie storage, too.

Once your body is “full” of calories, the extra gets turned into fat by your liver. That’s why, if you are fairly sedentary, you shouldn’t eat more than 400-600 calories at once. Think about it: Your muscles are full of energy because you’re not doing anything. Your blood only holds about 400-600 calories, and you only burn about 80 calories an hour. You can easily go 4 hours without eating, just on what’s in your bloodstream. But if you then chow down a 1,200-calorie hamburger, less than half of that will go toward replenishing your blood’s energy supply. The rest is immediately turned into fat. Do that every day, and in a week you’ll have earned a pound of fat.

And it does no good to starve yourself later to “make up for it.” Your body won’t turn to those fat stores unless it’s pretty desperate – it’d much rather eat its own muscle. That’s basically a survival technique, especially in women, whose body chemistry demands more fat be present than is needed in men. Working out correctly – think high-intensity interval training – can force your body into a “survival panic” where it’ll start tapping into those fat stores.

(Apologies for the massive oversimplifications)

Why Learning is so Difficult (for Adults)

It’s sort of a maxim that it’s easy to learn as a child, but that as you get older your brain ossifies and no longer absorbs new material easily. Funnily, we equate this to, “it’s harder to learn as you get older,” when in fact the “absorb,” “sponge,” and “ossify” words are actually more descriptive of the actual situation.

In short: Why’s it so tough to learn as you get older?

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The End of an Era

As you probably know, I’ve started working at Pluralsight as a Curriculum Director, and I’m having a blast doing it. I’m also continuing my work at PowerShell.org, including helping to organize the PowerShell Summit, respond to questions in our forums, and so on. I’ve even been working on some ebook projects in the background, which will probably come to light in 2016.

All that means that I’ve had to cut back on a few areas – and, in a month or so, you’ll see the last of my articles on RedmondMag.com. That link should actually turn up a search result with all of my articles – some 350 of them dating back to July of 2002. That’s more than 12 years of articles! I had a similarly long run of more than 6 years and 70+ articles on TechNet Magazine before Microsoft killed that publication, running from December 2006 to June 2013.

I’ve absolutely loved working with these publications, through name changes and as they’ve shifted from paper to digital and reached a whole new audience. I’m delighted that RedmondMag.com and sister sites like MCPMag.com are still lively and relevant; I hope you’ll check them out and find something useful.

I’ll continue blogging here (and apologize for being so quiet in the first quarter of 2015 – it’s been busy), and posting the odd technical article on PowerShell.org. I hope to see you there.

The Most Inspiring PowerShell Story Ever

I recently received a wonderful, humbling e-mail from a fellow who’s given me permission to share his story. I hope, after reading this, that you’ll do your best to pass it on – even to your non-technical friends. It has a wonderful ending, but it’s a really important cautionary tale. Share this with your co-workers, your user group, your Tweeple, and even your Facebook friends. It’s a technology story, but the moral is much more broadly applicable.

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Welcome to the Mainframe Age (We Missed You)

Back in the day… way back… computers took up entire buildings. For one computer. Everyone logged onto that same computer, and submitted work to it. The computer divvied its time up across the running jobs, and system operators (sysops) monitored that resource allocation. Nobody really knew where the computer “lived,” because they interacted with it by means of terminals.

Welcome back. Only now, we call it “cloud.”

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Why the Tech “Insiders” Don’t “Get” Apple Watch’s Pricing

I’ve been having a grand time watching the speculation around Apple Watch. While I doubt I’ll buy one (I’m simply not a regular watch wearer), the rumor mill is awesome. The high-end, real-gold “Edition” version is being rumored to cost anywhere from $5,000 to $20,000. What’s best is the assertion that Apple had better start ‘splaining itself when it comes to that price. After all, how can you possibly charge that much when the entry-level version is under $350?

I imagine that the point of the “Edition” version is that you can’t afford one. Apple doesn’t need to “justify” its difference in price from the entry-level $349 “Sport” model any more than American Express “justifies” the $4100 extra annual fee a Centurion Card commands over the Platinum Card. Sure, the Centurion has some extra perks, but not that many.

The justification is simply that most people can’t afford it, thus reserving the ultra-expensive model as a status icon for no other reason than most people can’t afford it. Celebrities will wear the “Edition” model. Maybe Woz will get one. But you won’t, and that’s why it’s “special.”

I wouldn’t be shocked if the Edition model isn’t even on display in stores for casual viewing. You’ll have to make an appointment, like in a fancy jewelry store. I mean, maybe not, but I could se them doing it.

This is pretty much how the luxury-goods market works. Why is a Rolex worth tens of thousands? It’s a Rolex. It’s not a markedly better watch than a Fossil, but it’s a Rolex. Why is a Porsche so expensive? Largely because it’s a Porsche, and people decided that’s what they’d pay for them. Plus, the panda-leather seats. It’s hardly shocking to see Apple go after that end of the market, given that they already command a top-market price based primarily on the strength of their brand.

It’s all got to be massively vexing to established luxury watch brands like Movado, Tag-Heur, and the like. I mean, the press isn’t going gaga wondering how much their next limited-edition timepiece is going to cost, and fretting that their won’t be a solid explanation for the high price.

It’s all deliciously giggly.

Now, where did I put my Mickey Mouse pocket watch…

How to Get Kids into Technology Careers

First of all, get them to consider it [technical careers] in the first place. That’s key. Even considering the thing. They need to understand that they’re in a land by themselves. Don’t look for your buddies to be helpful, because they won’t be. You’ve gotta step away from the crowd and go do your own thing. You find a ground; cover it; it’s brand-new; you’re on your own — you’re an explorer. That’s about what it’s going to be like. Explore new vistas, new avenues, new ways — not relying on everyone else’s way to tell you which way to go, and how to go, and what you should be doing.

Jerry Lawson, inventor of the first cartridge-based video game console, the “Fairchild Channel F.” via engadget Lawson’s advice was meant for young black men and women, but I think it’s quite applicable to any young person.